巴基斯坦:世界上最大的难民收容国

  • 時間:   2021-06-24      
  • 作者:   巴铁泽米尔      
  • 來源:   澳门法治报     
  • 瀏覽人數:  753

afghan-refugees-pakistan.jpg地缘政治正走向更多的对抗、自然灾害和人为情况,迫使人们离开家园,住在自己国家的难民营或移民到其他国家过着悲惨的生活。


世界难民日于2001年6月20日首次举行,是为了纪念1951年《关于难民地位的公约》成立50周年。世界难民日是一个关键时刻,可以及时与世界讨论难民是谁以及他们为什么需要保护。


世界难民日是一个让人们对他们的困境产生共鸣和理解,并承认他们在重建生活中所具有的韧性的活动。世界难民日彰显了难民的权利、需求和梦想,有助于调动政治意愿和资源,使难民能够生存和繁荣。虽然每天保护和改善难民的生活至关重要,但像世界难民日这样的国际日有助于使人们普遍关注逃离冲突或迫害者的困境。在世界难民日举行的许多活动为支持难民创造了机会。


“世界难民日表达了对因战争或迫害而背井离乡的人们的声援……这不是为了分担负担。它是关于分担全球责任的问题,这不仅基于我们共同人类的广泛理念,而且也基于国际法的特定义务。-António古特雷斯,联合国秘书长。


全球有8240万人因迫害、冲突、暴力或侵犯人权而被迫流离失所。我们现在观察到的是有记录以来最高水平的流离失所。它包括:世界上有2640万难民,是有史以来最高的;4 800万国内流离失所者;410万寻求庇护者,还有390万流离失所的委内瑞拉人。


最脆弱的地区和国家是撒哈拉以南非洲、萨尔瓦多、危地马拉和洪都拉斯、委内瑞拉、伊拉克、叙利亚、苏丹、也门、乌克兰和缅甸。


虽然难民属于不同的宗教、文化、种族和种族,但估计有50%的难民和国内流离失所者(IDPs)是在穆斯林国家。随着叙利亚和阿富汗危机的升级,目前的比例可能会进一步增加。伊斯兰救济组织为4个国家的难民和10个国家的国内流离失所者开展工作,其方案重点包括保健和营养、教育、住房和心理社会支持。《古兰经》也呼吁穆斯林“给予路人应得的”(Q30:38;Q17:26)。通过zakat,穆斯林将他们每年储蓄的一部分作为施舍物来帮助弱势人群,包括“需要帮助的旅行者”(Q9:60)。


许多国家正在分担难民的负担;当然,欧洲是安置难民最多的国家。然而,土耳其和巴基斯坦也是两个穆斯林国家,共同承受着沉重的难民负担。巴基斯坦过去在高峰时期收容了多达500万阿富汗难民。尽管如此,仍有300万登记的阿富汗难民,但非官方数字要高得多,因为许多阿富汗难民没有登记,没有任何合法身份就留在了巴基斯坦。除了阿富汗难民,还有来自伊朗、伊拉克、巴勒斯坦、也门、叙利亚、伊拉克、利比亚、索马里、埃塞俄比亚、孟加拉国、印度、缅甸、斯里兰卡等国的流氓。


巴基斯坦仍然是一个发展中国家,正在经历最严重的经济危机,然而,我们的传统、文化、宗教和法律制度允许难民进入巴基斯坦并获得庇护。巴基斯坦是一个开放的社会,可以容纳任何国籍、文化、种族等,不歧视任何个人。


40多年来,巴基斯坦在难民保护方面发挥了带头作用。巴基斯坦一直是世界上最大的难民收容国之一。巴基斯坦仍然有大约300万阿富汗人,向他们提供必要的保护。巴基斯坦人民展示了慷慨、团结和同情本国难民的典范价值,这体现在巴基斯坦在公共卫生、教育和生计方面的包容性政策中,包括在正在进行的COVID-19应对期间。巴基斯坦人民收容了数百万难民,为承担国际责任作出了超出其应有的贡献。巴基斯坦在促进阿富汗的可持续和平方面也发挥了关键作用。


在这一天,巴基斯坦特别赞扬难民署在宣传、领导和支持世界各地的难民和收容社区方面所做的值得赞扬的工作,特别是在当前的大流行病期间。


巴基斯坦还重申呼吁加强全球责任分担,加倍努力寻求持久解决方案,早日在阿富汗实现和平政治解决,为国际社会支持的有尊严、有时限和资源充足的阿富汗难民遣返铺平道路。


附件:本报时事评论员巴铁泽米尔简介

微信图片_20210508153233.jpg

Zamir Awan,泽米尔阿万,笔名:巴铁泽米尔。


现任巴基斯坦国立科技大学中国研究中心副主任。巴基斯坦驻中国大使馆原科技参赞。


泽米尔生于1962年3月1日,80年代在中国留过学。在上海大学获得学士与硕士学位,机械专业。


从2010年,在巴基斯坦驻华大使馆,担任参赞,负责中巴两国之间科技交流与发展科技合作。中巴两国政治关系非常密切,通称“铁哥们儿全天候战列合作伙伴”的关系。科技算战略地位,所以两国也重视科技交流与合作。


泽米尔阿万,利用他在中国学习时学过的知识(包括农业、林业、生物学、健康业、工业、水电、能源、高等教育等等)加强了合作关系。签订了不少合同与协议,推动了不少项目。


他为巴中两国人民之间的友谊做了不少的工作,特别一带一路与巴中经济走廊方面。在他的任期中,在两国关系发展壮大。


从2020年起成为《澳门法治报》时事评论员。

Pakistan: the world's largest refugee hosting country


By Prof. Engr. Zamir Ahmed Awan

June 20 is marked as “World Refugee Day”. This year’s theme is: “Together, we heal, learn and shine, is very important as the number of refugees is multiplying”.

Geopolitics are moving toward more confrontations, natural disasters, and artificially man-made situations forcing people to leave their homes and live either in refugee camps in their own countries or immigrate to other countries to live miserable lives.


First celebrated on June 20, 2001, to observe the 50th birthday of the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, World Refugee Day is a critical moment in time to talk with the world about who refugees are and why they need protection.


World Refugee Day is an event to build empathy and understanding for their plight and to recognize their resilience in rebuilding their lives. World Refugee Day shines a light on refugees’ rights, needs, and dreams, helping to mobilize political will and resources so refugees can survive and thrive. While it is crucial to protect and improve refugees’ lives every day, international days like World Refugee Day help to focus universal attention on the plight of those fleeing conflict or persecution. Many activities held on World Refugee Day create opportunities to support refugees.


“World Refugee Day is an expression of solidarity with people who have been uprooted from their homes by war or persecution . . . This not about sharing a burden. It is about sharing a global responsibility, based not only on the broad idea of our common humanity but also on the particular obligations of international law.” –António Guterres, UN Secretary-General.


82.4 million Individuals have been forcibly displaced globally due to persecution, conflict, violence, or human rights violations. We are now observing the highest levels of displacement on record. It includes: 26.4 million refugees in the world—the highest ever seen; 48.0 million internally displaced people; and 4.1 million asylum-seekers, also 3.9 million Venezuelans displaced abroad.


The most vulnerable regions and countries are Sub-Saharan Africa, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras, Venezuela, Iraq, Syria, Sudan, Yemen, Ukraine, and Myanmar.


Although refugees belong to various religions, cultures, ethnicities, and races, but estimated at 50 percent of refugees and internally-displaced persons (IDPs) were based in Muslim countries. With the escalation of the crisis in Syria and Afghanistan, the current proportion is likely to be increased further. Islamic Relief works with refugees in four countries and IDPs in ten countries, with program focuses including health and nutrition, education, shelter, and psychosocial support. The Quran also calls on Muslims to “give what is due to… the wayfarer” (Q30:38; Q17:26). Through zakat, Muslims give a percentage of their annual savings as alms to help vulnerable people, including “travelers in need” (Q9:60).


Many countries are sharing burdens of Refugees; of course, Europe is at number one accommodating refugees. However, Turkey and Pakistan are also two Muslim countries, sharing a heavy burden of refugees. Pakistan used to host up to five million Afghan refugees at peak time. Still, there are three million registered Afghan refugees, but unofficial figures are much higher as many Afghan refugees do not get registered and staying in Pakistan without any legal status. In addition to Afghan Refugees, there are rogues from Iran, Iraq, Palestine, Yemen, Syria, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Ethiopia, Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, etc.


Pakistan is still a developing country and passing through the worst economic crisis, yet, our traditions, culture, religion, and the legal system allows refugees to enter Pakistan and seen refuge. Pakistan is an open society and can accommodate any nationality, culture, and race, etc., with no discrimination toward any individuals.


For over four decades, Pakistan has led by example in refugee protection. Pakistan has been one of the world’s largest refugee-hosting countries. Pakistan still hosts around 3 million Afghans providing them necessary protection. The people of Pakistan have demonstrated exemplary values of generosity, solidarity, and compassion towards the refugees in the country, showcased in Pakistan’s inclusive policies on public health, education, and livelihoods, including during the ongoing COVID-19 response. The people of Pakistan have contributed more than their fair share of shouldering an international responsibility by hosting millions of refugees. Pakistan has also been playing a pivotal role in facilitating sustainable peace in Afghanistan.


On this Day, Pakistan pays special tribute to the UNHCR for its commendable work concerning advocacy, leadership, and support to the refugees and host communities throughout the world, especially amidst the ongoing pandemic.


Pakistan also reiterates its call for greater global responsibility-sharing, redoubling of efforts for durable solutions, and an early peaceful political settlement in Afghanistan that paves the way for dignified, time-bound, and well-resourced repatriation of Afghan refugees supported by the international community.


Author: Prof. Engr. Zamir Ahmed Awan – Sinologist (ex-Diplomat), Editor, Analyst, Non-Resident Fellow of CCG (Center for China and Globalization), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan.


(This is an opinion article. The views expressed belong  only to the author and the publication of the article  does not necessarily imply  the endorsement of its content by  World Geostrategic Insights). 


Image Credit: INP

Related Posts

AFGHANISTAN-CHINA-PAKISTAN FOURTH TRILATERAL DIALOGUE

US WITHDRAWAL FROM AFGHANISTAN AND ECHO OF ITS CONSEQUENCES

AFGHANISTAN: THE OPPORTUNITY FOR PEACE MUST BE SEIZED – INTERVIEW WITH AJMAL SHAMS, PRESIDENT OF THE AFGHAN SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY

ARE SYRIAN REFUGEES A PRESSURE CARD IN ANKARA’S HANDS OR A THREAT TO TURKISH INTERNAL STABILITY?

ROHINGYA CRISIS – THE CONTRADICTORY FACE OF HUMANITY


图文整理:那娜

责任编辑:陈龙狮

责任编辑:cls
关键字:时政、国际、要闻