时事评论:联合国向阿富汗发出最大援助呼吁

  • 時間:   2022-01-16      
  • 作者:   巴铁泽米尔      
  • 來源:   澳门法治报     
  • 瀏覽人數:  10278

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联合国援助负责人马丁格里菲斯呼吁国际社会,称阿富汗“全面的人道主义灾难迫在眉睫”。 占阿富汗人口近一半的约 2200 万人正面临粮食、药品、燃料、电力和基本生活必需品短缺等严重危机。



2022 年 1 月 11 日,联合国表示,2022 年需要近 50 亿美元援助阿富汗,因为该全球机构发起了有史以来最大规模的人道主义呼吁,呼吁单一国家避免人道主义灾难。联合国人道主义机构周二表示,阿富汗境内需要 44 亿美元,同时还需要 6.23 亿美元来支持数百万阿富汗人在境外避难。今年,五个邻国约有 570 万流离失所的阿富汗人需要重大救济。四十年来,巴基斯坦一直在收容阿富汗难民,阿富汗难民人数在高峰时期达到了 500 万,而目前大约有 300 万。



“一场全面的人道主义灾难迫在眉睫。我的信息很紧急:不要对阿富汗人民关上大门,”联合国人道主义事务和紧急救济协调员马丁格里菲斯说。 “帮助我们扩大规模并避免普遍存在的饥饿、疾病、营养不良和最终的死亡。”



自去年 8 月塔利班重新控制阿富汗以来,在美国和北约部队随意且计划不周的撤军之后,该国陷入了金融混乱,在华盛顿冻结了该国数十亿美元的资产和国际金融机构暂停资金。此外,由于美国的制裁,援助供应严重中断。严冬进一步加重了人民的苦难。阿富汗也在 2021 年遭遇了几十年来最严重的干旱。格里菲斯在日内瓦对记者说,没有一揽子援助计划,“就没有未来”。



为响应联合国的呼吁,美国承诺今年为阿富汗提供超过 3.08 亿美元的初步援助。美国国际开发署(USAID)在一份声明中说,这笔钱将用于为弱势群体提供食物和营养、医疗保健设施、防寒计划和后勤支持。



联合国儿童基金会通讯主管萨姆·莫特在喀布尔发表讲话说:“阿富汗正在陷入世界上最大的人道主义危机。苦难的规模是前所未有的。 “如果不采取行动,二分之一的儿童将严重营养不良。最重要的是,阿富汗正在经历 27 年来最严重的干旱、日益严重的粮食贫困和失业问题。所有这一切都在冬天的背景下,“她补充道。



伊斯兰堡组织在伊斯兰堡就阿富汗问题举行的特别会议做出了一些积极的决定,但尚未完全实现。时间过得飞快,随着时间一天天过去,当地的情况也越来越严重。



格里菲斯说,如果得到资助,该呼吁将帮助援助机构加大提供粮食和农业支持、卫生服务、营养不良治疗、紧急避难所、获得水和卫生设施、保护和教育的力度。



到 2022 年,估计将有 470 万人患有急性营养不良,其中包括 110 万严重急性营养不良的儿童。



格里菲斯说,如果没有人道主义援助,接下来会发生痛苦、死亡、饥饿和进一步的大规模流离失所,“剥夺阿富汗人民现在和近期将他们的国家作为家园和支持的希望”。



然而,如果国际捐助者挺身而出,“我们将看到阿富汗的机会,最终可能会看到某种安全的成果”。



格里菲斯说,阿富汗人道主义组织的安全局势现在可能比多年前好得多,并补充说喀布尔各部委的工作人员与塔利班接管之前基本保持一致。



他说,联合国安理会在 12 月采取行动,在不违反旨在孤立塔利班的国际制裁的情况下,帮助人道主义援助送达绝望的阿富汗人,这使当地的捐助者和人道主义者的工作环境更加舒适。



这笔钱将用于 160 个非政府组织和提供援助的联合国机构。一些将用于支付一线工人,如医护人员。



格里菲斯说,大约 800 万儿童可能会错过他们的教育,因为自 8 月以来教师基本上没有得到报酬。



联合国难民事务负责人菲利普·格兰迪表示,援助计划的目标是稳定阿富汗境内的局势,包括国内流离失所者,从而防止进一步涌入阿富汗边境的移民潮。 “在该地区及其他地区,这种人员流动将难以管理,因为它不会在该地区停止,”他说。 值得一提的是,如果不及时采取行动,情况可能会进一步恶化,“我们明年将不得不要求100亿美元,而不是50亿美元,”他补充道。



包括巴基斯坦在内的少数国家正在提供人道主义援助,但由于自身资源有限,还不够。 联合国对国际社会的呼吁可能会优先采取行动,主动接近阿富汗饥饿的人类。



翻译整理:那娜

责任编辑:陈龙狮



附件:本报时事评论员巴铁泽米尔简介

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Zamir Awan,泽米尔阿万,笔名:巴铁泽米尔。



现任巴基斯坦国立科技大学中国研究中心副主任。巴基斯坦驻中国大使馆原科技参赞。



泽米尔生于1962年3月1日,80年代在中国留过学。在上海大学获得学士与硕士学位,机械专业。



从2010年,在巴基斯坦驻华大使馆,担任参赞,负责中巴两国之间科技交流与发展科技合作。中巴两国政治关系非常密切,通称“铁哥们儿全天候战略合作伙伴”的关系。科技算战略地位,所以两国也重视科技交流与合作。



泽米尔阿万,利用他在中国学习时学过的知识(包括农业、林业、生物学、健康业、工业、水电、能源、高等教育等等)加强了合作关系。签订了不少合同与协议,推动了不少项目。



他为巴中两国人民之间的友谊做了不少的工作,特别一带一路与巴中经济走廊方面。在他的任期中,在两国关系发展壮大。



从2020年起成为《澳门法治报》时事评论员。



UN launched the largest aid appeal for Afghanistan



UN aid chief Martin Griffiths appeals to the international community, saying ‘full-blown humanitarian catastrophe looms’ in Afghanistan. Around 22 million people, which constitutes almost half of the population of Afghanistan are facing grieve crises, like shortage of food, medicines, fuel, electricity, and basic necessities of life. 



On 11 January 2022, the United Nations said it needed nearly $5bn in aid for Afghanistan in 2022, as the global body launched its largest-ever humanitarian appeal for a single country to avert a humanitarian catastrophe. The UN humanitarian agency on Tuesday said $4.4bn was needed within Afghanistan, while a further $623m was required to support the millions of Afghans sheltering beyond its borders. Approximately 5.7 million displaced Afghans in five neighboring countries needed vital relief this year. Pakistan has been hosting Afghan refugees for four decades, the number of Afghan refugees touched up to 5 million at peak time, and however, currently, there are roughly 3 million.

“A full-blown humanitarian catastrophe looms. My message is urgent: don’t shut the door on the people of Afghanistan,” said UN Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator Martin Griffiths. “Help us scale up and stave off widespread hunger, disease, malnutrition, and ultimately death.”

Since the Taliban regained control of Afghanistan last August, after the hap-hazard and ill-planned withdrawal of US and NATO troops, the country has plunged into financial chaos, with inflation and unemployment surging after Washington froze billions of dollars of the country’s assets and international financial institutions suspended funds. Moreover, aid supplies have been heavily disrupted due to US sanctions. The hard winter has further increased the suffering of the people. Afghanistan also suffered its worst drought in decades in 2021. Without the aid package, “there won’t be a future”, Griffiths told reporters in Geneva.

In response to the UN appeal, the United States promised more than $308 million in an initial aid package for Afghanistan this year. The money will provide for food and nutrition for vulnerable people, health care facilities, winterization programs, and logistics support, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) said in a statement.

Speaking from Kabul, UNICEF chief of communications Sam Mort said that “Afghanistan was descending into the biggest humanitarian crisis in the world. The scale of suffering is unprecedented. “Without action, one in two children will be acutely malnourished. On top of that, Afghanistan is experiencing the worst drought in 27 years, rising food poverty, and unemployment. All of this has been in the background during winter,” she added.

OIC’s extraordinary meeting in Islamabad on the Afghan issue has made some positive decisions, but, not fully materialized yet. Time is running quickly and the situation on the ground is getting more serious with the passage of every day. 

Griffiths said the appeal, if funded, would help aid agencies ramp up the delivery of food and agriculture support, health services, malnutrition treatment, emergency shelters, access to water and sanitation, protection, and education.

An estimated 4.7 million people will suffer from acute malnutrition in 2022, including 1.1 million children with severe acute malnutrition.

Griffiths said without humanitarian aid, distress, deaths, hunger and further mass displacement would follow, “robbing the people of Afghanistan of the hope that their country will be their home and support, now and in the near term”.

However, if international donors come forward, “we will see the opportunity for an Afghanistan which may finally see the fruits of some kind of security”.

Griffiths said the security situation for humanitarian organizations in Afghanistan was probably much better now than for many years, adding that the staff in the ministries in Kabul largely remained the same as before the Taliban takeover.

He said the UN Security Council’s move in December to help humanitarian aid reach desperate Afghans, without violating international sanctions aimed at isolating the Taliban, had made the operating environment for donors and humanitarians on the ground much more comfortable.

The money will go to 160 NGOs plus UN agencies delivering aid. Some will be used to pay front-line workers such as healthcare staff.

About eight million children could miss out on their education because teachers largely have not been paid since August, Griffiths said.

UN refugee chief Filippo Grandi said the aid package’s goal was to stabilize the situation within Afghanistan, including for internally displaced people, thereby preventing a further flood of migrants fleeing across the country’s borders. “That movement of people will be difficult to manage, in the region and beyond because it will not stop in the region,” he said. It is worth mentioning that if timely actions are not taken, the situation might worsen further, “we will have to ask for $10bn next year, not $5bn,” he added.

Few countries including Pakistan are extending humanitarian assistance, but, having their own limitations of resources, are not sufficient. The UN’s appeal to the international community may act on a priority basis to approach the starving humanity in Afghanistan proactively.

Author: Prof. Engr. Zamir Ahmed Awan – Sinologist (ex-Diplomat), Editor, Analyst, Non-Resident Fellow of CCG (Center for China and Globalization), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan.
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关键字:時政、要聞、國際